+91-11-64690378 REGISTER FREE
Resources -> Other Resources -> Useful Articles -> How to Make Plurals

How to Make Plurals

Pluralisation in English can be a bit of a tricky game, and as with any language the key to mastering this aspect lies in practicing through reading and conversing until the variations that appear unpredictable in the beginning become second nature, a matter of habit. Having said that, there are certain principles that are generally applicable that make the task easier by giving us a broad idea of how common words are pluralised. Let us take a look at these.

For most nouns, add an ‘s’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Car

Cars

Desk

Desks

Tree

Trees

Ball

Balls

Hand

Hands

For nouns that end with ‘s’, ‘x’, ‘z’, ‘ch’, or ‘sh’, add ‘es’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Boss

Bosses

Box

Boxes

Topaz

Topazes

Leech

Leeches

Dish

Dishes

For some words that end with ‘o’, add ‘es’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Potato

Potatoes

Echo

Echoes

Hero

Heroes

For some words that end with ‘o’, add ‘s’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Photo

Photos

Piano

Pianos

Logo

Logos

Radio

Radios

For some words ending with ‘f’, replace the ‘f’ with a ‘v’ and add ‘es’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Thief

Thieves

Loaf

Loaves

Half

Halves

Calf

Calves

Leaf

Leaves

For some words ending with ‘f’, add an ‘s’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Reefs

Reefs

Roof

Roofs

Chef

Chefs

For some words ending with ‘ife’, replace the ‘f’ with a ‘v’ and add an ‘s’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Wife

Wives

Knife

Knives

Life

Lives

For common nouns ending with a consonant followed by ‘y’,replace the ‘y’ with an ‘i’ and add ‘es’ at the end of the word.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Nappy

Nappies

Poppy

Poppies

Fly

Flies

Penny

Pennies

Sty

Sties

Some nouns are the same in both forms.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Fish

Fish

Sheep

Sheep

Deer

Deer

Tuna

Tuna

Trout

Trout

For some nouns, other letters must be replaced or added, sometimes changing the words completely.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

Person

People

Ox

Oxen

Child

Children

Goose

Geese

Man

Men

Foot

Feet